Weather Forecasting

Areas of Forecasting

Every morning, millions of people around the world, are curious about what the weather will be like that day. Depending on where you live and what you do, the weather [...]

Most common areas of weather forecasting

The most common areas of weather forecasting are: Agricultural Forecasts: For a farmer, the information included in a regular forecast (temperature, humidity, cloud cover, probability of precipitation) is not enough. Apart from [...]

Data Gathering

Meteorologists use a variety of tools to help them gather information about weather and climate. Some of these tools allow meteorologists to gather data about what is happening near Earth's [...]

What is a weather forecast?

A Weather Forecast is a deterministic or probabilistic statement of expected meteorological conditions for a specific period and for a specific area or portion of air space. It is [...]


There are a few properties of the atmosphere which are key elements for weather determination: temperature, humidity and air pressure. A set of tools or instruments have been created -some [...]


The demand for customized forecasts has been growing steadily. Commercial meteorological companies offer a wide variety of tailored forecasts for specific applications. Among these special applications are forecasts produced for [...]


Weather information started to be available for the masses when in the late 1800s, the New York Times began publishing a small section that summarized the previous day’s weather and [...]


In 1922, the first radio broadcasted weather forecast went on air, transmitted by the BBC; short time after, hundreds of radios around the world were broadcasting weather information. Radio stations are [...]


With pioneer attempts in 1936 and 1941, television exploded in the 1950s, and weather forecasts became part of the daily broadcast. The first “weatherperson” was a cartoon, and then this [...]


The Internet is a mechanism for world-wide information dissemination, in every term. It presents both a challenge and opportunity for weather forecast companies. It has limitations: It is not a good medium [...]

Cell Phones

The latest technological advances allowed the existence of this new source of weather information distribution; there are many companies around the world offering this service on your cell phone. This [...]


The elaboration of a weather forecast is no easy task. It is quite obvious that the atmosphere is highly complex place, a space lacking in linear behavior. The latest technological [...]

Forecast elaboration process

The elaboration of a weather forecast is no easy task. It is quite obvious that the atmosphere is a highly complex place, a space lacking in linear behavior. Forecast elaboration process: Weather [...]

A bit of history...

The bases for modern weather prediction were founded by the scientists from late 1600s into the 1800s. Among others, Newton and Boyle announced the basic rules that control the expansion [...]


Practically every country in the world has its own national weather service, but not many have full-blown global weather models, focused at a single location where supercomputers are present. Supercomputers [...]

Basic forecasted elements

Temperature: the quantity measured by a thermometer, expressed in degrees, Celsius, Kelvin or Fahrenheit, according to the scale. In a weather forecast, low and high temperatures are indicated. In a [...]

Short and Long Range forecasts

There is a spectrum of outlooks that extend from one or two hours to a year or more ahead. The most common types are: nowcasts, short, medium and long-range forecasts. Nowcasts [...]

Chaos Theory and Butterfly Effect

Edward Norton Lorenz, an American pioneer in the chaos theory says that every improvement in the understanding and processing of meteorological data can make weather forecast more accurate, but only [...]

Dangerous weather

One of the main responsibilities of the National Weather Services around the world is to warn the public about hazardous weather conditions, such as floods, severe thunderstorms, tornadoes, snow and [...]

Maps & Symbols

A weather map is a graphical representation of relevant meteorological information. The weather map that we see on a newspaper or on TV is quite different from a technical synoptic [...]

Weather Maps

It is considered a weather map, any graphical display of the distribution of meteorological data over a given area. Also called synoptic charts or weather charts, they are geographical maps on [...]

Weather Icons and Symbols

Symbols and icons are not the same. On a weather map we may find both coexisting. An icon is a sign which refers to the object that it denotes merely by [...]

How to read a weather map...

The features that appear on a typical weather map (which represents surface weather) are: High and Low Pressure Areas - designated by a capital and large blue H or red L, [...]