The air moving above the rotating Earth is called wind. There are surface winds and “planetary winds aloft”, the latter of which is part of the Earth’s general circulation of air up in the troposphere. The uneven distribution of pressure is what causes air motion; air moves from areas of high pressure to areas of low pressure, in its attempt to achieve equilibrium. This pressure gradient is the driving force behind winds.
Airflow Patterns (general circulation of winds aloft)
Back in the 1680s, Edmond Halley (1656-1742), discovered the key element of the planet’s global circulation: warm air near the equator rises, it flows out toward the poles at high [...]
It is an apparent force, due to the rotation of the Earth, which acts normal to, and to the right of the velocity of a moving particle in the Northern [...]
The Westerlies are global-scale, dominant mid-latitude winds that blow from the subtropical high pressure belt toward the polar front. They come from the west, which characterize the mid-latitudes both north [...]
The jet stream is a flat tubular quasi-horizontal current of air, generally near the tropopause, whose axis is along a line of maximum speed and which is characterized by strong [...]
An ocean current can be defined as a horizontal movement of seawater at the ocean's surface. Ocean currents are driven by the circulation of wind above surface waters. The surface layer [...]