The Climates of the World

Subchapters: Climate Zones, Climate Changes, Geographical & Seasonal Variances.

Climate Changes

Future Climate

A great number of scientists that gather climate data, use computer models to simulate future climate, and not surprisingly, they do not agree on what is coming ahead. Climate change is [...]

The Ozone Hole

The Ozone Hole is a characteristic severe depletion of stratospheric ozone that occurs each spring over the Antarctic continent. Although it is known as the Ozone Hole, “hole” gives the [...]

The Greenhouse Effect

There are certain gases in the atmosphere, called greenhouse gases, which permit the income of solar radiation but restrict the outward flow of infrared radiation, storing the heat by absorbing [...]

Air pollution

Air pollution is defined as the presence of substances in the atmosphere, generally contaminants, particularly those that do not occur naturally (anthropogenic air pollution), that substantially alter or degrade the [...]

International initiatives

International Initiatives regarding Future Climate: The creation (in 1988) of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change is a proof of the international concern on future climate. The reports produced by this [...]

Recording Climate Changes

Having enough and accurate information about climate in the past, and the constant changes it has been undergoing, is a real challenge for scientists, as it cannot be done directly, [...]

Recording methods

Recording climate change methods: Tree rings - In a horizontal cross section cut from a tree trunk, variable width of rings are observed; these were produced by seasonal growth. The combination [...]

Through Time & Its Reasons

Change is the only constant. It has been going on in the planet for an estimated 4.5 billion years, since its creation.

Climate Change

Climate change is any systematic change in the long-term statistics of climate elements (e.g. temperature, winds, atmospheric pressure) which is persistent over several decades or more. In a timeframe, there is a [...]

Causes of Climate Change

Ice Ages Astronomical perturbations Geological perturbations Ocean Conveyor Belt Human activities 1. Ice Ages Let’s draw an imaginary time line and try to situate the different events of the planet’s history, from more than 120 million [...]

Climate Zones

Climate Zones around the World

Climatic classification is the division of the Earth's climates into a worldwide system of contiguous regions; each one of them is characterized by a relative homogeneity of the climatic elements, [...]

Classification of climate zones

Tropical Humid Climates (A): Location: on or near the Equator, as the Amazon Basin in South America, central Africa and Southeast Asia. Classification Criteria: 1) the mean temperature of the coldest [...]


While climate classification can tell us what is expected in a given location, averaged over a lengthy period of time, the following flashes suggest how the weather evolves in a [...]

Difference between Climate & Weather

Weather and climate are not the same, and they should not be confused. Definition of Weather: state or condition of the atmosphere at a given place at a particular time, as [...]

Geographical & Seasonal Variances

Geographical & Seasonal Variances

In the evaluation of natural climate variability (geographical and seasonal) some factors stand out because of their impact on global climate: “El Niño” and its counterpart “La Niña”, Monsoon circulations [...]

El Niño and La Niña

Although its history goes back at least to the year 1500, it was not until the late 90s when most people around the world had heard about the existence of [...]


Monsoon: seasonal wind, actually a global scale seasonal thermal direct circulation caused by the configuration of land and ocean, in southern Asia and some other locations in the world. This winds, [...]

Ocean Currents

Ocean current: movement of ocean water characterized by regularity, either of a cyclical nature or, more commonly, a continuous stream flowing along a definable path. The major ocean currents are [...]