The Source of Weather

The Sun

The Sun, apparently active for the past 4.6 billion years, is responsible not only for the existence of weather, but for the mere existence of life on Earth. The main [...]

Structure of the Sun

The sun is structured in five zones or layers, which ordered from in-to-out, are: The core – it has an estimated temperature of 27 million Fahrenheit degrees (14 million Celsius degrees) [...]


Radiation is an important factor in the process of turning solar energy into weather. Generally speaking, it is defined as energy that is transmitted in the form of rays, waves [...]

Solar Wind

Solar wind is a stream of particles (mostly high-energy protons) which are ejected from the upper atmosphere of the Sun and move radially from it. The Sun's atmosphere is a [...]

The Earth

In the Solar System, the Earth is the third planet of eight considering its distance from the Sun. It is one of the smallest, with a radius of about 3.945 [...]

Structure of the Earth

The story starts five billion years ago, when the immense amount of caloric energy generated by a high-velocity bombardment of meteorites and comets melted the entire planet. Different processes led to [...]


Earth's rotation can be defined as the rotatory motion of the Earth with respect to its center of mass. While traveling around the Sun, our planet is spinning west to [...]


Revolution is defined as the rotatory motion of a celestial body around another. The complete revolution of the Earth’s orbit around the sun takes 365 ¼ days, which explains the [...]


The Earth’s tilt is the angle at which the Earth’s axis is leaning with respect to the Sun. The Earth’s axis is not perpendicular to its orbital plane: it [...]

Magnetic Field

It is defined as a magnetic shell that surrounds the planet. It is asymmetrically shaped, as it is delimited by the pressure of the solar wind, in the direction of [...]

Van Allen Belts

The Van Allen Belts were discovered in the late 1950s, and surround the Earth representing two regions of a particularly high concentration of charged particles. The inner belt occupies a [...]

The Atmosphere

The atmosphere is the gaseous area –the whole mass of aeriform fluid- that surrounds the planet, which controls the climate and ultimately determines the quality of life on Earth.

Where action takes place...

The atmosphere is made of: oxygen ozone water vapor nitrogen noble gases visible and non visible solid particles Oxygen and nitrogen constitute about 99 percent of it. Water vapor in humid regions can occupy up to 3% [...]

Depth and Structure

The atmosphere is structured in five concentric spherical thermal layers or "-spheres", separated by narrow transition zones or "-pauses-". The upper boundary at which gases merge into space lies at [...]

Absorption and Reflection

Absorption and reflection are two of the processes that occur to solar radiation as it passes through the atmosphere; solar radiation is modified due to its interaction with gases and [...]