The Effects (mainly Surface Weather)


Fronts are the narrow zone of division between air masses of differing characteristics (temperature and humidity). They form where two large air masses collide at the Earth's surface. Two air masses [...]

Types of fronts

Cold front: Occurs when a dense cold air mass moves towards an area of warmer weather; cold air displaces lighter warmer air, pushing it upward; the front is the leading edge [...]

Highs & Lows

High: an area of the atmosphere where the pressure is high relative to that in the surrounding region at the same level. It is always associated with anti-cyclonic circulation (clockwise [...]

Air flow and circulation

The pressure is high at the surface where air is slowly descending. In fact, a high is an area of sinking air. As air descends, it warms, which inhibits the [...]

Storm Track

It is the path followed by a cyclonic disturbance, for example, a center of low atmospheric pressure, a severe thunderstorm, or a tornado. It also roughly corresponds to the mean trajectory [...]


Storms are organized areas of disturbed weather, especially those affecting the Earth's surface, implying inclement and possibly destructive weather. They can be considered: As a complex of pressure, wind, clouds, precipitation, etc. [...]

Types of storms

Thunderstorm A thunderstorm is a local storm, invariably produced by a cumulonimbus cloud and always accompanied by lightning and thunder, usually with strong gusts of wind, heavy rain, and sometimes with [...]

Tropical Cyclones

It is any cyclone of non frontal synoptic scale, originated over tropical or subtropical waters, that presents an organized convection and a cyclonic circulation characterized by surface winds. Being one of [...]

Favorable conditions for formation of fronts

Warm ocean waters (at least 80°F or 26.5°C). An atmosphere potentially unstable to moist convection. Thunderstorm activity. Relatively moist layers near the mid-troposphere. A minimum distance of at least 300 mi (500 km) from [...]

Characteristics of a Tropical Cyclone

The surface winds spiral inward cyclonically, becoming almost circular near the center. The cloud and rain patterns are distinctive in each storm. Spiral bands in the outer vortex. Most intense rain and winds [...]

Classification of Tropical Cyclones

Tropical disturbance: light surface winds with indications of cyclonic circulation. Tropical depression: a closed wind circulation and maximum sustained speed of 23-39 MPH (37 to 62 KPH) surface winds. Tropical storm: cyclone [...]

Hurricanes and Typhoons

A hurricane is a very severe tropical cyclone. Characteristics: A diameter of 310 miles (500 km). Winds of 75 MPH (118 KPH) or more. Winds blow drawing a large spiral around a center of [...]

Storm Surge

Rise and onshore surge of seawater as the result of the winds of a storm, and secondarily of the surface pressure drop near the storm’s center. Large crest of water, 50 [...]

Floods & Droughts

The extremes of flood and drought occur within the context of climate, a context that is both local and global. The cadence of wet and dry years is difficult to [...]

Floods - causes, types and effects

Flood is the overflowing of the normal confines of a body of water, usually a stream, or the accumulation of water over areas that are not normally submerged. During the past [...]

Droughts - causes, types and effects

Drought is a period of abnormally dry weather long enough to cause a serious hydrological imbalance. It can be defined as a deficiency of precipitation over an extended period of [...]

Related phenomena: El Niño and La Niña

These ocean-atmospheric systems responsible for noticeable cyclical changes in the temperature of water surface in the Pacific Ocean are the kind of event that can change the location of areas [...]